Evidence-Base for Our Leadership Training Programs

The following is a selection of many peer-reviewed publications that have resulted from randomized-controlled trials and evaluations of our evidence-based training programs.


Hammer et al., 2019

The Safety and Health Improvement Program (SHIP) was designed to increase workers’ safety and health using supervisor/leadership training. SHIP was implemented and evaluated in a cluster randomized controlled trial with 20 supervisors and 292 construction crew members representing a high-risk industry. We found that the intervention was more beneficial for work crew members who had poorer pre-intervention perceptions of their supervisor and lower perceived team cohesion.


Reference: Hammer, L. B., Truxillo, D. M., Bodner, T., Pytlovany, A. C., & Richman, A. (2019). Exploration of the impact of organisational context on a workplace safety and health intervention. Work & Stress, 33(2), 192-210. ​ 

Hammer et al., 2020

This study evaluated the effectiveness of a supervisor support training program on both supervisor attitudes and employee sleep and stress outcomes by drawing on a multi-level rigorous randomized controlled trial in 35 organizations. Utilizing theory from the social support and training literatures, the purpose of the current study was to understand ways to improve the transition, and ultimately the health and well-being, of military veteran employees in the workplace via a supervisor support training intervention. 

Reference: Hammer, L. B., Brady, J. M., & Perry, M. L. (2020). Training supervisors to support veterans at work: Effects on supervisor attitudes and employee sleep and stress. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 93(2), 273-301.  ​

Hammer et al., 2018

This randomized controlled trial involved the development and evaluation of a supervisor support training intervention in the civilian workforce called VSST: Veteran-Supportive Supervisor Training. A theoretically based intervention in the workplace is critical to ensuring a smooth transition for service members and their families to civilian life, leading to improved psychological and physical health and improved work outcomes among service members.

Reference: Hammer, L. B., Wan, W. H., Brockwood, K., Bodner, T., & Mohr, C. D. (2019). Supervisor support training effects on veterans in the workplace: Effects on health and work outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 104, 52-69. ​

Sianoja et al., 2019

Sleep is critical to employees’ health and well-being, safety, and performance at work. Sleep leadership refers to supervisor behaviors that aim to improve employees’ sleep, such as showing concern for the quantity and quality of employees’ sleep. Using a sample of 180 employees and their 91 supervisors working as full-time National Guard military service members, we examined the relationship of sleep leadership and family-supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB) to employees’ sleep.

Reference: Sianoja, M., Crain, T. L., Hammer, L. B., Bodner, T., Brockwood, K. J., LoPresti, M., & Shea, S. A. (2020). The relationship between leadership support and employee sleep. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 25(3), 187–202.

Crain, Hammer, et al., 2014

Although critical to health and well-being, relatively little research has been conducted in the organizational literature on linkages between the work–family interface and sleep. Drawing on conservation of resources theory, we use a sample of 623 information technology workers to examine the relationships between work–family conflict, family-supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB), and sleep quality and quantity.


Reference: Crain, T. L., Hammer, L. B., Bodner, T., Kossek, E. E., Moen, P., Lilienthal, R., & Buxton, O. M. (2014). Work–family conflict, family-supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB), and sleep outcomes. Journal of occupational health psychology, 19(2), 155.

Hammer et al., 2011

Drawing on a conceptual model integrating research on training, work–family interventions, and social
support, we conducted a quasi-experimental field study to assess the impact of a supervisor training and self-monitoring intervention designed to increase supervisors’ use of family-supportive supervisor behaviors. 

Reference: Hammer, L. B., Kossek, E. E., Anger, W. K., Bodner, T., & Zimmerman, K. L. (2011). Clarifying work–family intervention processes: The roles of work–family conflict and family-supportive supervisor behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(1), 134.

Hammer et al., 2015

We tested the effects of a work–family intervention on employee reports of safety compliance and organizational citizenship behaviors in 30 health care facilities using a group-randomized trial. Significant intervention effects were observed for safety compliance at the 6-month, and organizational citizenship behaviors at the 12-month, followups. More specifically, results demonstrate that the intervention protected against declines in employee self-reported safety compliance and organizational citizenship behaviors compared with employees in the control facilities.

Reference: Hammer, L. B., Johnson, R. C., Crain, T. L., Bodner, T., Kossek, E. E., Davis, K. D., . . . Berkman, L. (2016). Intervention effects on safety compliance and citizenship behaviors: Evidence from the work, family, and health study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 101(2), 190-208. 

Hammer, Kossek, et al., 2013

Recently, scholars have demonstrated the importance of Family Supportive Supervisor Behaviors (FSSB), defined as behaviors exhibited by supervisors that are supportive of employees’ family roles, in relation to health, well-being, and organizational outcomes. Results from a multilevel confirmatory factor analyses and multilevel regression analyses provide evidence of construct and criterion-related validity of the FSSB-SF, as it was significantly related to work–family conflict, job satisfaction, turnover intentions, control over work hours, obligation to work when sick, perceived stress, and reports of family time adequacy.

Reference: Hammer, L. B., Ernst Kossek, E., Bodner, T., & Crain, T. (2013). Measurement development and validation of the Family Supportive Supervisor Behavior Short-Form (FSSB-SF). Journal of occupational health psychology, 18(3), 285.